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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

Efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture on treating depression-related insomnia: a study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

Introduction Sleep disorders including insomnia occur frequently in depressive patients. Acupuncture is a widely recognised therapy to treat depression and sleep disorders in clinical practice. This multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) is aimed to ...

Long-term outcomes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Childhood (LUCI): protocol for an electronic record-linked cohort study

Introduction Current guidelines advise the prompt diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children to improve both short and longer term outcomes. However, the risk of long-term complications following childhood UTI is unclear. ...

Pathways and associated costs of care in patients with confirmed and presumptive tuberculosis in Tanzania: A cross-sectional study

Objective To assess pathways and associated costs of seeking care from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis in patients with confirmed and presumptive tuberculosis (TB). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting District hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Part ...

The effect of lowering the legal blood alcohol concentration limit on driving under the influence (DUI) in southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional retrospective analysis

Objectives We aimed to profile the epidemiological changes of driving under the influence (DUI) in southern Taiwan after the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit was lowered from 50 to 30 mg/dL in 2013. Setting Level 1 trauma medical centre in sou ...

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake norms and preterm birth rate: a cross-sectional analysis of 184 countries

Background The preponderance of evidence now indicates that elevated long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC omega-3 PUFA) intake is often associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (PTB). This conclusion is based on recent meta-analyses that ...

Longitudinal access and exposure to green-blue spaces and individual-level mental health and well-being: protocol for a longitudinal, population-wide record-linked natural experiment

Introduction Studies suggest that access and exposure to green-blue spaces (GBS) have beneficial impacts on mental health. However, the evidence base is limited with respect to longitudinal studies. The main aim of this longitudinal, population-wide, recor ...

Positive and negative social support and depressive symptoms according to economic status among adults in Korea: cross-sectional results from the Health Examinees-Gem Study

Objectives The interaction between positive and negative social support as well as each domain of social support and income on depressive symptom has not been much explored. We aimed to examine the associations of positive and negative social support with ...

Identification of earlier predictors of pregnancy complications through wearable technologies in a Brazilian multicentre cohort: Maternal Actigraphy Exploratory Study I (MAES-I) study protocol

Introduction Non-invasive tools capable of identifying predictors of maternal complications would be a step forward for improving maternal and perinatal health. There is an association between modification in physical activity (PA) and sleep–wake patterns ...

Locked-in syndrome in Sweden, an explorative study of persons who underwent rehabilitation: a cohort study

Objective Locked-in syndrome (LiS) is a rare condition, characterised by a complete paresis except for vertical eye movements and blinking with cognitive functions intact, commonly caused by ischaemia in the ventral pons. Previous studies have indicated th ...

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