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Cochrane Reviews

'Human' insulin versus animal insulin in people with diabetes mellitus

Richter, B. and Neisis, G. Insulin treatment Human insulin was introduced for the routine treatment of diabetes mellitus in the early 1980s without adequate comparison of efficacy to animal insulin preparations. First reports of altered hypoglycaemia awar ...

Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

Rosner, S. et al Alcohol dependency Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be incr ...

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) for the common cold in adults

Li, S., et al Safety, Aetaminophen, Treatment, Common cold, Adult The common cold is the most frequent viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Adults in the US experience two to four colds per year. The symptoms of the common cold usually include ...

Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation

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Acupuncture for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates

Wong, V., Cheuk, DLK., and Chu, V. Acupuncture, Mortality, Morbidity, Neonate, Infant, Newborn Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurs in newborn infants when they lack oxygen in the peripartum period. HIE causes significant morbidity and mortality. ...

Acupuncture for Mumps in Children

He, Jing et al Acupuncture, Children, Mumps. Mumps is an acute, viral illness transmitted by respiratory droplets and saliva. A number of studies published in China have suggested that acupuncture is beneficial for children with mumps but the literature r ...

Acupuncture for stress urinary incontinence in adults

Wang, Y., et al Acupuncture, Stress urinary incontinence, Adults Stress urinary incontinence is a common disease among older people, especially women. The symptoms are leakage of urine when the person coughs, laughs or exercises. It affects social, psycho ...

Addition of intravenous beta2-agonists to inhaled beta2-agonists for acute asthma

Travers, A.H., et al Acute asthma, Treatment, Emergency department Beta 2-agonist drugs are used for the treatment of asthma and work by opening the airways to help people breathe more easily.  Beta 2-agonists can be given to people in two different ways ...

Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

Cashman, C.M., et al Alcohol, Drug screening, Injury Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of ...

Alcohol ignition interlock programmes for reducing drink driving recidivism

Willis, C., Lybrand, S. and Bellamy, N. Drink driver, Recidivism, Alcohol consumption An ignition interlock device is part of a multi-dimensional programme aimed at reducing recidivism in convicted drink drivers. To operate a vehicle equipped with an igni ...

Alginate dressings for venous leg ulcers

O'meara, S. and Martyn-St james, M. Dressing, Non-dressing treatment, Compression therapy, Venous leg ulcers. Venous leg ulcers are a common and recurring type of chronic or complex wound which can be distressing for patients and costly to healthcare ...

Alpha-blockers as medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones

Campschroer, T., et al Medical treatment, Alpha-blocker, Pharmacotherapy, Placebo, Impact, Stone clearance rate, Ureteral stones Urinary stone disease is frequently seen in the urology practice. Symptoms include flank or abdominal pain radiating to the gr ...

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

Van da Laar, F. et al Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, Blood glucose Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) reduce blood glucose levels and may thus prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). These poss ...

Alternative versus standard packages of antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy

Dowswell, T. et al Antenatal care The number of visits for antenatal (prenatal) care developed without evidence of how many visits are necessary. The content of each visit also needs evaluation. The objective of this review is to compare the effects of an ...

Alternatives to inpatient mental health care for children and young people

Shepperd, S. et al Mental health services Current policy in the UK and elsewhere places emphasis on the provision of mental health services in the least restrictive setting, whilst also recognising that some children will require inpatient care. As a resu ...

Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns

Clare, G. et al Acute ocular surface burns, Eyesight, Blindness Ocular surface burns vary in severity from mild and self-limiting to devastating injuries characterised by failure of regeneration of the ocular surface, leading to blindness and disfiguremen ...

Amphetamines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset psychiatric disorder that can persist into adulthood in up to 50% of patients. From a clinical point of view, ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, mood instability, irritability, diff ...

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for proteinuria and microalbuminuria in people with sickle cell disease

Sasongko. T.H., Nagalla, S. and Ballas, S.K. ACE inhibitor administration, Sickle cell disease, Intraglomerular pressure, Microalbuminuria, Proteinuria, Adverse effects Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited disorders that often lead to kidney damage ...

Antenatal day care units versus hospital admission for women with complicated pregnancy

Dowswell, T., Middleton, P. and Weeks, A. Antenatal care Antenatal day care units have been widely used as an alternative to inpatient care for women with pregnancy complications including mild and moderate hypertension, and preterm prelabour rupture of t ...

Antenatal interventions for reducing weight in obese women for improving pregnancy outcome

Furber, C.M., et al Weight reduction, Obese, Obesity, Overweight, Pregnant women Pregnant women who are obese risk serious complications for themselves and their children. The mother is more likely to develop diabetes or high blood pressure or pre-eclamps ...