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Aversive smoking for smoking cessation

Hajek, P. and Stead, L.F. Smoking cessation Aversion therapy pairs the pleasurable stimulus of smoking a cigarette with some unpleasant stimulus. The objective is to extinguish the urge to smoke. This review has two aims: First, to determine the efficacy ...

Biomedical risk assessment as an aid for smoking cessation

Bize, R. et al Smoking cessation A possible strategy for increasing smoking cessation rates could be to provide smokers who have contact with healthcare systems with feedback on the biomedical or potential future effects of smoking, e.g. measurement of ex ...

Smoking cessation for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease

Critchley, J.A. and Capewell, S. Smoking cessation and coronary heart disease Although the importance of smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is beyond doubt, the speed and magnitude of risk reduction when a smoker with coronary heart disea ...

Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation

Hajek, P. et al Smoking cessation A number of treatments can help smokers make a successful quit attempt, but many initially successful quitters relapse over time. Several interventions were proposed to help prevent relapse. The objective of this review i ...

Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents

Thomas, R.E., Kaker, P.R.A. and Lorenzetti, D. Smoking prevention There is evidence that children's decisions to smoke are influenced by family and friends. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to help family members to strengthen non-smoking ...

Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people

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Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus

Orozco, L.J. et al DIABETES MELLITUS, DIET, EATING HABIT, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, PREVENTION The incidence of type 2 diabetes is associated with the 'Westernised lifestyle', mainly in terms of dietary habits and physical activity. Thus an intensive d ...

Recombinant growth hormone for children and adolescents with Turner syndrome

Baxter, L., Bryant, J., Cave, C.B. and Milne, R. Genetic endocrine disorder Turner syndrome (TS) affects about one in 1500 to 2500 live-born females. One of the most prevalent and salient features of the syndrome is extremely short stature. Untreated wome ...

Recombinant growth hormone for idiopathic short stature in children and adolescents

Bryant, J., Baxter, L., Cave, C.B. and Milne, R. Pituitary disorder Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to children who are very short compared with their peers for unknown or hereditary reasons. Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) has been used to in ...

Antidepressants for generalized anxiety disorder

Kapczinski, F.F.K. et al Anxiety disorder Pharmacological treatments have been successfully used to treat Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Benzodiazepine and non benzodiazepine anxiolytics used to be the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of GA ...

Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents

James, A.A.C.J., Soler, A. and Weatherall, R.R.W. Anxiety disorder Childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders are relatively common, occurring in between 5-18% of all children and adolescents. They are associated with significant morbidity and impairment ...

Combined pharmacotherapy and psychological therapies for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Hetrick, S.E., Purcell, R., Garner, B. and Parslow, R. Anxiety disorder PTSD is an anxiety disorder related to exposure to a severe psychological trauma. Symptoms include re-experiencing the event, avoidance and arousal as well as distress and impairment ...

Exercise in prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression among children and young people

Larun, L. et al Anxiety disorder Depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders for children and adolescents. Psychological (e.g. psychotherapy), psychosocial (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy) and biological (e.g. SSRIs or tricyclic drugs) tr ...

Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents

Ipser, J.C., Stein, D.J., Hawkridge, S. and Hoppe, L. Anxiety disorder Anxiety disorders are a potentially disabling group of disorders which are prevalent in childhood and adolescence. The recognition of the early onset of anxiety disorders, and their su ...

Pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder

Stein, D.J., Ipser, J.C. and van Balkom, A.J. Anxiety disorder Social phobia (SP), or social anxiety disorder, is a prevalent and disabling disorder. The growing evidence of the disorder's neurobiological basis has stimulated an increased interest in ...

Alternatives to inpatient mental health care for children and young people

Shepperd, S. et al Mental health services Current policy in the UK and elsewhere places emphasis on the provision of mental health services in the least restrictive setting, whilst also recognising that some children will require inpatient care. As a resu ...

Mother and baby units for schizophrenia

Irving, C.B. and Saylan, M. Mental health services Mother and baby units (MBUs) are recommended, in the UK, as an optimal site for treating post partum psychoses. Naturalistic studies suggest poor outcomes for mothers and their children if admission is ne ...

Pharmacologic treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis

Koch, M.W. et al Depression Depression is a common problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is unclear which pharmacologic treatment is the most effective and the least harmful. The objective of this review is to investigate the efficacy and t ...

Behavioural and cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents

O'Kearney, R.T., Anstey, K., von Sanden, C. andHunt, A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children an ...

Antibiotics for brain abscesses in people with cyanotic congenital heart disease

Lumbiganon, P. and Chaikitpinyo, A. Heart disease Brain abscess is a focal, intracerebral infection that begins as a localized area of brain infection and develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. People with cyanotic co ...