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Systematic reviews

High-volume haemofiltration for sepsis

Borthwick, E.M.J., et al This review assessed whether HVHF improves clinical outcome in adult critically ill patients with sepsis in an ICU setting Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the most common causes of death in adults who are sufficiently ill ...

Gases for establishing pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic abdominal surgery

Cheng, Y., et al Pneumoperitoneum, Patient, Laparoscopic abdominal surgery Laparoscopic surgery is now widely performed to treat various abdominal diseases. Traditionally, the first step during laparoscopic surgery is to distend the abdomen, including ent ...

Exercise for improving outcomes after osteoporotic vertebral fracture

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Cerebrolysin for vascular dementia

Chen, N., et al Cerebrolysin, Vascular dementia, Treatment Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common disorder which currently lacks definitive treatments. Cerebrolysin, a peptide preparation produced from purified pig brain proteins, seems to be a promising int ...

Behavioral interventions for improving contraceptive use among women living with HIV

Lopez, L.M., et al Behavioral intervention, HIV-positive women, Contraceptive choice, Contraceptive use Counseling can help HIV-positive women meet their goals for family planning. It can also help prevent giving the virus to their infants. Due to better ...

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

Mitty, D., Bunce, C. and Charteris, D. Intravitreal anti-VEGF agent, Retinal vein, BRVO Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) occurs when a retinal vein that drains part of the retina becomes blocked. BRVO can affect approximately four to five people per 1 ...

Acupuncture for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates

Wong, V., Cheuk, DLK., and Chu, V. Acupuncture, Mortality, Morbidity, Neonate, Infant, Newborn Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurs in newborn infants when they lack oxygen in the peripartum period. HIE causes significant morbidity and mortality. ...

Health and the 2008 Economic Recession: Evidence from the United Kingdom

Astell-Burt, T. and Feng, X. Economic recession The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health ...

Psychosocial interventions for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse.

Objective: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for reduction in substance use in people with a serious mental illness compared with standard care. Conclusion: We included 32 RCTs and found no compelling evidence to support any one psychoso ...

Does back and neck pain become more common as you get older? A systematic literature review

Fejer, R. and Leboeuf-Yde, C. Back pain, Neck pain It is generally believed that the prevalance aof back and neck pain increases with age and as the proportion of elderly will keep rising we may be facing public health concerns in the future. The aim of t ...

Interventions in Developing Nations for Improving Primary and Secondary School Enrollment of Children: A Systematic Review

Petrosino, A., et al Education BACKGROUND Education is considered critical to economic development and social welfare in developing nations. In light of compelling evidence that links expanded education systems and socioeconomic development while highligh ...

The Effectiveness of Incarceration-Based Drug Treatment on Criminal Behavior

Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. and Layton MacKenzie, D. Effectiveness of incarceration-based drug treatment programs in reducing post-release recidivism and drug relapse Many, if not most, incarcerated offenders have substance abuse problems. Without effective ...

Workplace Disability Management Programs Promoting Return to Work

Gensby, U., et al Effectiveness of workplace disability management programs This report presents a Campbell systematic review on the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM programs) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented a ...

Safety of regular formoterol or salmeterol in children with asthma: an overview of Cochrane reviews

Cates, C.J., et al To assess the safety of regular formoterol or salmeterol, either as monotherapy or as combination therapy, in children with asthma Asthma is a common condition that affects the airways, the small tubes that carry air in and out of the l ...

Prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections after urodynamic studies

Foon, R., Toozs-Hoson, P. and Latthe, P. To assess the effectiveness and safety of administering prophylactic antibiotics in reducing the risk of urinary tract infections after urodynamic studies. The hypothesis was that administering prophylactic antibio ...

Pregabalin monotherapy for epilepsy

Zhou, Q., Zheng, J., Yu, L. and Jia, X. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of pregabalin in people with epilepsy A number of people continue to have seizures and many experience adverse effects, despite current antiepileptic treatments. As a resul ...

Nebulised surfactant in preterm infants with or at risk of respiratory distress syndrome

Abdel-Latif, M. and Osborn, D.A. Nebulised surfactant administration, Prophylaxis, Treatment, Placebo, Intratracheal surfactant administration, Morbidity, Mortality, Preterm infant, Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) There is insufficient evidence from r ...

Male involvement for increasing the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes

Brusamento, S., et al PMTCT interventions, Developing countries, Family health During the past ten years, national governments and international agencies have strengthened the implementation of PMTCT programmes. However, the majority of women still do not ...

Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment

Morgan, A.T., dodrill, P. and Ward, E.C. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, Neurological impairment, Swollowing Oropharyngeal dysphagia, or swallowing difficulty, can be defined as problems with chewing and preparing food, difficulty moving food through the mouth t ...

Incentives for preventing smoking in children and adolescents

Johnston, V., Liberato, S. and Thomas, D. Incentives, Prevention, Children, Adolescents, Smoke. Intervention Most smokers start smoking before they are 18 years old. Starting smoking earlier in life means a smoker will smoke for more years than someone wh ...