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Systematic reviews

Postpartum misoprostol for preventing maternal mortality and morbidity

Hofmeyr, G.J., et al To review maternal deaths and severe morbidity in all randomised trials of misoprostol for prevention or treatment of PPH Bleeding from the uterus or womb after childbirth is normal, but excessive bleeding (haemorrhage) is an importan ...

Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

gower, E.W., et al The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery Endophthalmitis (inflammation of the inside of the eyeball due to infection or trauma) is a ...

Padma 28 for intermittent claudication

Morling, M.R., Maxwell, H. and Stewart, Marlene To determine whether Padma 28 is effective, compared with placebo or other medications, in increasing pain-free and maximum walking distance for patients with intermittent claudication Intermittent claudicat ...

Linezolid versus vancomycin for skin and soft tissue infections

Yue, J., et al Linezolid, Vancomycin, Treatment, SSTIs Skin and soft tissue infections such as impetigo, abscesses, ulcers, and surgical site infections are common infections of the skin. For serious skin and soft tissue infections involving the deeper ti ...

Interventions to encourage uptake of cancer screening for people with severe mental illness

Barley, E., et al Health professionals, Cancer screening, Mental illness, Smoking, Diet Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 13% of all deaths in 2007. Some studies have reported an increased incidence of cancer in pe ...

Interventions for implementation of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical and surgical patients at risk for venous thromboembolism

Kahn, S.R., et al Thromboprophylaxis, Hospitalized adult patients, Venous thromboembolism (VTE) Blood clots which are classified as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the legs and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the lungs, together known as venous thromboembolism ( ...

Pharmacological agents for preventing morbidity associated with the haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation

Khan, F.A. and Ullah, H. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological agents in preventing the morbidity and mortality resulting from the haemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubatio ...

Rifamycins (rifampicin, rifabutin and rifapentine) compared to isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-negative people at risk of active TB

Shama, S.K., et al To compare the effects of rifampicin monotherapy or rifamycin-combination therapy versus INH monotherapy for preventing active TB in HIV-negative people at risk of developing active TB Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is caused by a ...

Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhoea

Ahmed, T., et al To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of vaccines for preventing ETEC diarrhoea Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is a type of bacteria that can infect both children and adults, causing diarrhoea. In particular, it affects peo ...

Warfarin initiation nomograms for venous thromboembolism

Garcia, P., Ruiz, W. and Munarriz, C.L. To evaluate the efficacy of a 10-mg warfarin nomogram compared with a 5-mg warfarin nomogram among patients with VTE Venous thromboembolism is the presence of a blood clot that blocks a blood vessel within the venou ...

The impact of initiatives to limit the advertising of food and beverage products to children: a systematic review

Galbraith-Emami, S. and Lobstein, T. Food and drink advertising In response to increasing evidence that advertising of foods and beverages affects children's food choices and food intake, several national governments and many of the world's larg ...

Peritoneal closure versus no peritoneal closure for patients undergoing non-obstetric abdominal operations

Gurusamy, K.S., et al To compare the benefits and harms of parietal peritoneal closure compared with no parietal peritoneal closure in patients undergoing non-obstetric abdominal operations The peritoneum is the inner lining of the abdomen (tummy). After ...

Perioperative statin therapy for improving outcomes during and after noncardiac vascular surgery

Sanders, R.D., et al The authors examined whether short-term statin therapy, commenced before or on the day of noncardiac vascular surgery and continuing for at least 48 hours afterwards, improves patient outcomes including the risk of complications, pain ...

Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer

Lawrie, T.A., et al To assess the efficacy and safety of PLD in women with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) The choice of chemotherapy in women with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the duration of the platinum-free interv ...

Low molecular weight heparin for prevention of microvascular occlusion in digital replantation

Chen, Y., et al Subcutaneous LMWH treatment, Digits, Patients, Digital replantation, Traumatic amputation Microvascular surgery refers to any surgery involving small sized blood vessels that is performed under the operating microscope, allowing the repair ...

Interventions to promote informed consent for patients undergoing surgical and other invasive healthcare procedures

Kinnersley, P., et al Patients, Clinicians, Healthcare system, Surgical procedures, Invasive healthcare treatments Before patients have an operation or other invasive procedure (e.g. endoscopy) it is crucial for the healthcare professional to explain what ...

CHIVA method for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency

Bellmunt-Montoya, S., et al CHIVA method, Alternative therapeutic technique, Varicose veins Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a disorder in which veins fail to pump blood back to the heart adequately. It can cause varicose veins, skin ulcers, and supe ...

Anthracycline-containing regimens for treatment of follicular lymphoma in adults

Itchaki, G., et al ACRs, Chemotherapy regimens, Treatment FL is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is a slowly progressive disease, with a risk of transformation to a more aggressive lymphoma. Advanced disease (stage III and IV ...

Acupuncture for stress urinary incontinence in adults

Wang, Y., et al Acupuncture, Stress urinary incontinence, Adults Stress urinary incontinence is a common disease among older people, especially women. The symptoms are leakage of urine when the person coughs, laughs or exercises. It affects social, psycho ...

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) for the common cold in adults

Li, S., et al Safety, Aetaminophen, Treatment, Common cold, Adult The common cold is the most frequent viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Adults in the US experience two to four colds per year. The symptoms of the common cold usually include ...