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Anticonvulsants for preventing seizures in patients with chronic subdural haematoma

Ratilal, B.O., Costa, J. and Sampaio, C. Subdural haemorrhage Anticonvulsant therapy is sometimes used prophylactically in patients with chronic subdural haematoma, although the benefit is unclear.  The aim of this review is to establish the effectiveness ...

Parenting interventions for the prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood

Kendrick, D. et al Parenting interventions Parent education and training programmes can improve maternal psychosocial health, child behavioural problems and parenting practices. This review assesses the effects of parenting interventions for reducing chil ...

Psychosocial interventions for the prevention of disability following traumatic physical injury

De Silva, M. et al Psychosocial interventions Traumatic physical injury can result in many disabling sequelae including physical and mental health problems and impaired social functioning. The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of psychosoc ...

School-based secondary prevention programmes for preventing violence

Mytton, J.A. et al School based violence prevention programmes Early aggressive behaviour is a risk factor for later violence and criminal behaviour. Despite over 20 years of violence prevention interventions being delivered in the school setting, questio ...

Pharmacotherapy for weight loss in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Norris, S.L. et al Weight management Obesity is closely related to type 2 diabetes and long-term weight reduction is an important part of the care delivered to obese persons with diabetes. The objective of this review is to assess the efficacy of pharmaco ...

Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency

Vidal-Alabail, J. et al The effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common and rises with age. Most people with vitamin B12 deficiency are treated in primary care with intram ...

Parenteral calcium for intensive care unit patients

Forsythe, R.M. et al Parenteral calcium administration The objective of this review is to assess the effects of parenteral calcium administration in ICU patients on the following outcomes: mortality, multiple organ dysfunction, ICU and hospital length of ...

Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk from malnutrition

Milne, A.C., Potter, J., Vivanti, A. and Avenell, A. Malnutrition in elderly people Evidence for the effectiveness of nutritional supplements containing protein and energy, often prescribed for older people, is limited. Malnutrition is more common in this ...

Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries

Odigwe, C. et al Protein Energy Malnutrition Protein Energy Malnutrition is an important cause of child morbidity and mortality in middle- and low-income countries. It has been suggested that excessive free radical activity may be responsible for the clin ...

Intravitreal steroids for macular edema in diabetes

Grover, D.A., Li, T. and Chong, C.C.W. Diabetes Macular edema is secondary to leakage from diseased retinal capillaries and is an important cause of poor central visual acuity in patients with diabetic retinopathy. This review evaluated the effectiveness ...

Pentoxifylline for diabetic retinopathy

de Jesus, C.C.L. et al Diabetic retinopathy There is increasing evidence that capillary occlusion plays an important part in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Disaggregants, such as pentoxyfilline may influence the outcome and progression of diabet ...

Vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) for diabetic retinopathy

de Jesus, C.C.L. et al Effects of vitamin C and superoxide dismutase on diabetic retinopathy There is increasing evidence that diabetic retinopathy is caused by the action of free radicals. Radical scavengers like vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) ...

Debridement of diabetic foot ulcers

Edwards, J. and Stapley, S. Diabetic foot ulcers Foot ulceration is thought to affect 15% of people with diabetes at some time in their lives. Debridement is widely regarded as an effective intervention to speed up ulcer healing. The most effective method ...

Foam dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers

Durnville, J.C., Deshpande, S., O'Meara S. and Speak, K. Diabetic foot ulcers Foot ulcers in people with diabetes are a prevalent and serious global health issue. Dressings form a key part of ulcer treatment, with clinicians and patients having many ...

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factors as adjunctive therapy for diabetic foot infections

Cruciani, M., Lipsky, B., Mengoli, C. and deLalla, F. Diabetic foot infections Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases the release of neutrophil endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow and improves neutrophil functions, which are ...

Hydrogel dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers

Durnville, J.C., Deshpande, S., O'Meara S. and Speak, K. Diabetic foot ulcers Foot ulcers in people with diabetes are a prevalent and serious global health issue. Dressings form a key part of ulcer treatment, with clinicians and patients having many ...

Silver based wound dressings and topical agents for treating diabetic foot ulcers

Bergin, S. and Wraight, P. Diabetic foot ulcers Foot ulceration affects 15 to 20% of people with diabetes. It is a major precursor to amputation in this patient group, and early and appropriate treatment provides the greatest opportunity for healing. The ...

Topical silver for preventing wound infection

Storm-Versloot, M.N. et al Prevention of wound infection Silver-containing treatments are popular and used in wound treatments to combat a broad spectrum of pathogens, but evidence of their effectiveness in preventing wound infection or promoting healing ...

Topical silver for treating infected wounds

Vermeulen, H. et al Treatment of chronic wounds Topical silver treatments and silver dressings are increasingly used for the local treatment of contaminated or infected wounds, however, there is a lack of clarity regarding the evidence for their effective ...

Topical negative pressure for treating chronic wounds

Ubbink, D.T. et al Treatment of chronic wounds Chronic wounds mainly affect the elderly and those with multiple health problems. Despite the use of modern dressings, some of these wounds take a long time to heal, fail to heal, or recur, causing significan ...