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Consumption of fruits and vegetables and associations with risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the Yangon region of Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

26 Aug 2016


To explore the intake of fruits and vegetables in the Yangon region, Myanmar, and to describe associations between intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) and established risk factors for non-communicable diseases.


2 cross-sectional studies, using the STEPs methodology.


Urban and rural areas of the Yangon region of Myanmar.


1486, men and women, 25–74 years, were recruited through a multistage cluster sampling method. Institutionalised people, military personnel, Buddhist monks and nuns were not invited. Physically and mentally ill people were excluded.


Mean intake of fruit was 0.8 (SE 0.1) and 0.6 (0.0) servings/day and of vegetables 2.2 (0.1) and 1.2 (0.1) servings/day, in urban and rural areas, respectively. Adjusted for included confounders (age, sex, location, income, education, smoking and low physical activity), men and women eating ≥2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day had lower odds than others of hypertriglyceridaemia (OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.94)). On average, women eating at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day had cholesterol levels 0.28 mmol/L lower than the levels of other women. When only adjusted for sex and age, men eating at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day had cholesterol levels 0.27 mmol/L higher than other men.


A high intake of FV was associated with lower odds of hypertriglyceridaemia among men and women. It was also associated with cholesterol levels, negatively among women and positively among men.

Click here to view the full article which appeared in BMJ Open