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Brain Sciences, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives

16 Mar 2018

Brain Sciences, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives

Brain Sciences doi: 10.3390/brainsci8030047

Authors:
Giovanni Martinotti
Rita Santacroce
Mauro Pettorruso
Chiara Montemitro
Maria Spano
Marco Lorusso
Massimo di Giannantonio
Arturo Lerner

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies. We searched PubMed to identify original studies about psychedelics and Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Our research yielded a total of 45 papers, which have been analyzed and tabled to provide readers with the most updated and comprehensive literature review about the clinical features and treatment options for HPPD.

Click here to view the full article which appeared in Brain Sciences