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Biomolecules, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Lysosomal Regulation of mTORC1 by Amino Acids in Mammalian Cells

07 Jul 2017

Biomolecules, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Lysosomal Regulation of mTORC1 by Amino Acids in Mammalian Cells

Biomolecules doi: 10.3390/biom7030051

Authors:
Yao Yao
Edith Jones
Ken Inoki

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth in eukaryotic cells. The active mTORC1 promotes cellular anabolic processes including protein, pyrimidine, and lipid biosynthesis, and inhibits catabolic processes such as autophagy. Consistent with its growth-promoting functions, hyper-activation of mTORC1 signaling is one of the important pathomechanisms underlying major human health problems including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The mTORC1 receives multiple upstream signals such as an abundance of amino acids and growth factors, thus it regulates a wide range of downstream events relevant to cell growth and proliferation control. The regulation of mTORC1 by amino acids is a fast-evolving field with its detailed mechanisms currently being revealed as the precise picture emerges. In this review, we summarize recent progress with respect to biochemical and biological findings in the regulation of mTORC1 signaling on the lysosomal membrane by amino acids.

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